Short answer: Everything will be fine. Don't worry about this and get back to work.
Medium answer: Adding elements to or removing them from a vector invalidates all iterators and references/pointers (possibly with the exception of removing from the back). Simple as that. Don't refer to any old iterators and obtain new ones after such an operation. Example:
std::vector v = get_vector();
int & a = v;
int * b = &v;
std::vector::iterator c = v.begin();
Long answer: The vector keeps track of dynamic memory. When the memory is exhausted, it allocates a new, larger chunk elsewhere and copies (or moves) all the old elements over (and then frees up the old memory, destroying the old objects). Memory allocation and deallocation is done by the allocator (typically
std::allocator), which in turn usually invokes
::operator new() to fetch memory, which in turn usually calls
malloc(). Details may vary and depend on your platform. In any event, any previously held references, pointers or iterators are no longer valid (presumably because they refer to the now-freed memory, though it's not specified in the standard why they're invalid).